Tag Archive: England


Cloudwater: DIPA v13 (England: IIPA: 9% ABV)

Visual: Very cloudy apricot colour. Large yellow white mound of bubbles for a head.

Nose: Tangy. Hint of gherkin. Apples. Slightly musty. Light raspberry.

Body: Thick and creamy. Slight gherkin. Stewed banana. Big peach. Tart raspberry if held. Toffee backbone. Hop oils. Tangy. Slight pineapple. Vanilla yogurt.

Finish: Raspberry pavlova. Tart. Light gherkin. Apricot. Low level bitterness. Bready. Banana sweets. Vanilla yogurt. Chinese stir fry vegetables.

Conclusion: Ok, this is a mix of the great, and the kind of shit. An odd combo. So, erm, here goes. This has a real thick texture – heavy duty and gives a good grip to the flavour. The malt base comes with some toffee character, but is generally a neutral creamy to vanilla yogurt style. Basically something to give room for the hop flavours.

So, onto those hop flavours – well, there is nearly zero bitterness here. A bit unusual for an IPA – even the fruitiest and sweetest tend to have at least a tiny touch of it in the body. Here the only sign is in the bready finish – with some hop oils giving a sheen to the feel, but not a bitterness. Generally this is a bitterness free zone. So, yeah very unexpected for an IIPA.

Ok, so we have a solid base, and a slightly unusual start. Where is the kinds shit stuff I mentioned? The gherkin. The slightly tangy, sour, vegetable gherkin notes. It is very intense early on, especially when first poured – but is still present in a diminished form by the end of the beer. Now, this is an element that can work in beers, but has to be used very carefully. Here it just makes for an uneven, overpowering element that stamps all over the fruitiness the beer has underneath it. I can see what they are trying to do – it feels like it is aiming for a thick, almost crushed cannabis, muggy strength – but in my opinion it severely hurts the overall experience.

Underneath that there is a sense of good stewed fruit and peach melba. Lightly tart in a good way this time – very creamy and moderately sweet. The beer is mostly good in what it does but that one, greenery packed heaviness just makes it one that I really cannot get into at all, instead feeling even sludgy at times. It ends with an almost stir fry veg air – another off note in a beer that felt like it had promise otherwise

I really hope this is not used as the base for any of their new DIPA range.

Background: Had a few of the Cloudwater DIPAs over the past year – didn’t really keep up to date with trying them all as they came out so thick and fast. This one however is their last prototype one off release before they setup a regular line of DIPAs based on what they found out from these. So, thought it may be worth giving another, final go. Unlike some people I have no negative attachment to the number 13, so have no probs with this being their 13th release. Anyway, this was grabbed from Independent Spirit and drunk while listening to Ulver: Childhoods End.

Omnipollo: Buxton: Original Lemon Meringue Ice Cream Pie (England: Fruit Beer: 6% ABV)

Visual: Hazy lemon juice look with a thin white head.

Nose: Freshly squeezed lemon and traditional lemonade. Meringue. Milk touch. Apples. Squeezed lime.

Body: Tart lemon juice and lemon curd. Apple pie. Sugar dusting. Very fresh. Thick texture under the sharp front. Cream. Lime cordial. Tart grapes.

Finish: Lemon juice and pancakes. Squeezed lime. Peach and vanilla. Cream. Toffee ice cream syrup.

Conclusion: This is fresh, very fresh – lemony as all get out – yet despite that it is not overly acidic, nor sour as you would often expect with that fresh kind of lemon flavour. It is actually sweet, while still keeping that freshness and surprisingly creamy under the sharper front.

Not that lemon is the only note here – there is plenty of tart lime elements, and even a few sweeter fruit notes such as peach and apple. However, lemon definitely dominates, with lime as a close second. Anything else is way down the intensity list.

It is decent -fresh faced and pretty easy to drink. Not quite lemon meringue for me, nor quite ice cream – but there are enough calls to it that I can see why they picked the name. It is creamy, and as mentioned, very much lemon.

It isn’t the most complex thing though – shoot, barring the thick mouthfeel I would understand mistaking this thing for fruit juice. Alcoholic fruit juice admittedly – they don’t 100% hide that alcohol, but still fruit juice.

So, aye, super complex it ain’t. One for examining it ain’t. For something easy going, easy drinking and refreshing – sure! It is sweet, creamy and fresh – hits a lot of the instant satisfaction buttons there. So an immediately satisfying, tasty and fun beer – but with no depth under the surface. Good for a warm day, good for when you want to enjoy a beer but not get too deep into it.

Background: Ok, this is actually a beer that was conditioned with lemon juice. Huh, did not realise that – the bottle ingredients only list barley, wheat, oats and lactose – so I was surprised to find it listed as a fruit beer. Guess it explains how they nailed the lemon flavour so well. Anyway, I grabbed one of the ice cream series (easily recognisable by the walking poo on the bottle) tail end last year – so when I saw this one back in Independent Spirit it had to give it a go. Both Omnipollo and Buxton are rock solid breweries in my eyes, so a good background to this one. This was drunk while listening to Ritualz CDR. A haunting weird set of electronica I have not broken out for a while.

Wild Beer Co: Smoke ‘n’ Barrels: Winter (England: Smoked Dubbel: 7.4% ABV)

Visual: Very dark brown to black. Thin dark brown dash of a head. Some carbonation.

Nose: Sulphur and eggs. Lightly acidic. Bready. Malt chocolate. Smoke. Brown sugar. Creamy banana. Slightly dry.

Body: Sherbety feel up front into smoother back. Smoked meats. Brown sugar. Banana notes. Malt drinks. Slight chalk. Light tart grapes. Blackpool rock. Slight chocolate. Slight liquorice. Slight dry vinous influence.

Finish: Caramel. Smoked bacon. Hints of black cherry. Brown sugar. Light liquorice. Slight cherry pocked biscuits.

Conclusion: I came to this with a mix of nervousness and anticipation. Anticipation as Wild Beer Co’s Smoke beers have been improving with every release – and, better still, dark beers tend to carry smoke better in my experience. However there was nervousness as well – Liquorice seemed to be mentioned quite prominently in the description, and too much liquorice can really hurt a beer for me.

Thankfully the liquorice influence here is a small backing and rounding note. Instead this gives us something soothing, in a similar fashion to the chocolate and brown sugar touched Belgian dubbels but with a drier, slightly vinous base. This then has just a touch of Flemish bruin style being added to the mix. It results in an interesting mouthfeel and subtle cherry and tart grapes roundings to a very solid base.

The smoke, coming in as a sulphur to smoked bacon character is again a rounding note – giving extra weight and body to the beer. It is evident, but does not dominate. It feels a very balanced beer, all things considered. It even brings some banana and other fruity Belgian ester notes into the mix giving a lighter touch dusted over.

Probably could do with a touch of ageing – it can feel a tad chalky and fizzy at the moment, though that does settle to a smoother feel if held on the tongue for a moment. Any which way, could be polished with a few years I feel.

As it is it is a solid Dubbel, with lots of little tricks that make it atypical. Not an instant classic, but good, and I think it may have room to grow.

Background: I got an automated phone call today it said “With it being winter it is the perfect time to”. I have no idea what it said next. I hung up. Mainly because fuck automated phone calls, but also because it is Spring. If they get literally their first point wrong, why should I trust anything else they say? Anyway, this is a roundabout way of saying I finally got around to drinking the winter edition of Wild Beer Co’s smoked beers. I may have taken a while. It was a high abv dark beer, it was hardly like it was going to go off. Anyway this is *Deep breath time again* a Dubbel style beer, but with smoked malt, aged on liquorice smoked tart sloes in foudres that previously held red wine. This had been grabbed from Independent Spirit and drunk while listening to Bikini Kill. Only found out about them recently – angry and awesome music.

Verdant: Bloom IPA

Verdant: Bloom IPA (England: IPA: 6.5% ABV)

Visual: Hazy apricot to gold. Moderate carbonation. Moderate white fluffy head.

Nose: Good bitterness and fluffy hop character. Lots of pineapple and green grapes. Some apple. Floral. Dried apricot. Vanilla.

Body: Creamy thick texture. Custard slice. Nettles. Hop oils. Kumquat. Passion fruit. Toffee. Kiwi. Milk. Floral. Marshmallow.

Finish: Grapefruit. Grapes and pineapple. Juicy peach. Moderate hop character and bitterness. Some hop oils. Bready. Passion fruit. Milk. Floral air. Lightly peppery.

Conclusion: This is a very creamy, thick and milky IPA. Which was unexpected as the can mentioned it had a “Stripped down malt bill”. Possibly they mean stripped down on flavour rather than body, letting the hops do the legwork. Anyway… This is not a common take, the milkiness and creaminess actually makes it feel malt heavy to me – but the milky character does mean that it feels very different to the standard toffee backbone you normally get with these. There are toffee hints but they are not the core here.

On top of that it has quite a floral character, and is an IPA with good level of hop bitterness and hop oils which gives an nice intensity against the soothing base. The hop oils especially work well as they intertwine with the creamy texture.

Under that you find the more traditional set of IPA notes – a mix of fruits – passion fruit, kiwi and pineapple being the most evident. Again the flavours are thicker and creamier than you would otherwise expect. There are fresh touches which keeps it from being heavy, but less fresh and tart than you would expect – generally in line with the character of the rest of the beer.

Overall it is a soothing feeling but big flavoured IPA. Solid in quality and a bit different. The flavours aren’t world shakers, but they do the job. A more relaxed feeling IPA than most but still solidly bitter – good, not great, but fits nicely at the end of the night when the flavours need to be big, and the thicker feel is welcome as a soother before sleep.

Not bad.

Background: Picked up this can about a week ago from Independent Spirit. Between then and now I drank my first Verdant beer at Small Bar and it was very nice – so went into this hoping for a decent beer. Not much else to add – drunk while listening to Ulver – The Assassination of Julius Caesar. A new album on me, very different to what I expected. Which pretty much is Ulver summed up in one sentance.

Wild Beer Co: Spicy Crowd (England: Spice Beer: 5% ABV)

Visual: Pale gold. Some carbonation. Moderate white bubbled head.

Nose: Sharp lime. Sulphur. Lime cordial. Damp bread. Bombay mix. Fresh nan bread. Mild garlic. Peppercorn sauce. Boiled eggs. Ginger.

Body: Lime. Pepper. Kiwi. Watery texture. Prickly hops and greenery. Lime cordial. Bready backing. Peppercorn. Boiled eggs. Light dried apricot.

Finish: Lime cordial. Lots of black pepper. Musty hop character. Dry feel. Chai spice. Mint leaves. Bready.

Conclusion: Ok, sometime a spiced beer is basically a big wet bag of spice, owing little to the beer, and lots to the spice. This is one such beer. Basically this tastes like spiced lime cordial mixed with an American Pale Ale. Not a very standard beer then. It is, however, hard to say which of the many spices is most dominant.

Initially a Bombay mix and a Thai spice style really push out in the aroma, with ginger developing over time. So, very much a mix of spiced curry house styles. The body though is more peppery and touched by greenery – less well defined but with more intense flavours. That is odd as the actual body feels watery in mouthfeel, which is a wild contrast to the more intense flavour.

Finally the finish is into a chai spice and mint leaves style – soothing night drink style to send you to sleep with. The only common thread between the three parts of the beer is the lime cordial used everywhere.

Beer wise, it has that dry APA character- bready and with slightly muggy hop bitterness, but little else. While I am not overly taken by this beer, for what they are doing the dry APA style seems a good choice. It makes the spice very visible and yet manages to have a body that doesn’t make it overpowering.

As a beer it just feels like a grab bag of spice with no real theme or coherent character – and the lime cordial notes are over present without adding that much. Not a horrible beer, but not really leading anywhere – just a lot of spice floating around.

Not the best show of what Wild Beer can do.

Background: So, the second of the beers Wild Beer Co put out to promote their crowdfunding for a new brewery. Again this was grabbed at Independent Spirit. This is the odder of the two beers, being a pale ale made with galangal, kaffir lime leaves, lemongrass, peppercorns and birds-eye chilli. As of such, I feel it is more representative of the odd stuff that Wild Beer co regularly comes out with. Anyway this was drunk while listening to more of the madcap, over the top metal that is Evil Scarecrow.

Cloudwater: Against The Grain: Make Apple Pie Great Again (England: Fruit: 6.3% ABV)

Visual: Very cloudy caramel brown to cloudy apple juice. Very large off white head.

Nose: Cinnamon and apples .. ok, basically apple pie with fresh apples and buttery pastry. Danish pastry.

Body: Apples and cinnamon. Ground ginger. Pastry. Peppery and some white pepper. Dried apricot.

Finish: Vanilla. Apples. Cinnamon. Lightly bready. Light bitterness. White pepper. Light cloves and sugar dusting.

Conclusion: Ok, I think I’ve mentioned before that apple seems to be a hard ingredient to use correctly in a beer. They tend to have too little effect, or end up artificially sweet, or such issues as that.

So, in case you were wondering – yep! This makes apple pie (In a beer) great (Again? For the first time?). Anyway, I think what makes this work is the spice they add which does a lot of heavy lifting for the beer. The cinnamon and ginger notes are well used here, and of course are so closely mentally linked with apple pie that it really makes that core apple flavour seem much more significant than the intensity would otherwise manage. Also that spice grounding means that the apple and accompanying vanilla and pastry notes don’t come across sickly sweet. This all feels very well planned.

I feel like they looked at all the cinnamon and clove influenced Christmas beer and used what was learned from them as a base to work from to make this. It really has that vibe. But with apple pies. Then again, maybe they didn’t – I don’t know how they brewed it, that is just the impression got from the beer itself.

Now you could call this a one trick pony – but that would be somewhat unfair. For one it delivers its concept spot on, and that is what they are selling this beer as. So criticising it for doing its job feel slightly unfair, even if that was true. As a second point, it manages to still feel beer like under the apple pie styling, albeit in the aforementioned Christmas beer style. Finally the spice also brings in some more unusual elements with peppery character mixing well with the hop bitterness to give a bit more edge to that aspect.

Overall, good concept, good learning from beer history, good beer that makes apple pies great!

Background: Ok, this one I am fairly sure is a piss take of Donald Trump. Then again I have been wrong before, so I will just say Donald Trump is an incompetent man child shit who sucks up to fascists. Anyway, this is a beer made with apple puree, apple juice, cinnamon, nutmeg and muscovado sugar. Drunk while listening to Evil Scarecrow: Galactic Hunt – love the over the top fun and pop culture referencing metal of these lot. This beer was grabbed from Independent Spirit. Yes, again.

Wild Beer Co: Cloudy Crowd (England: IPA: 5.2% ABV)

Visual: Banana coloured cloudy body with lemon juice edges and apricot coloured core. Inch of moderate white head.

Nose: Banana soft sweets. Apricot skins. Milky. Moderate hop character and slight pineapple.

Body: Bitty hoppiness. Dried apricot. Guava. Good bitterness. Milky back. Thick fruit juice feel. Vanilla. Prickly hop character later on. Slight chalk. Kiwi.

Finish: Mango. Slight cardboard. Solid bitterness. Slight rock notes. Guava. Exotic fruit juice. Greenery. Kiwi.

Conclusion: There seems to be a run on the cloudier, slightly gritty bitterness, big fruitiness IPAs these days. Considering how many get called “New England” style, possibly that is the defining character of those beers. A quick google seems to indicate yes for the cloudiness, but none mention that slightly gritty bitter mouthfeel. Will have to continue investigating and compare with similar ones that come out.

So, how does this one compare to the others of the type I have encountered. Middling. For one, despite the can advertising it as a low bitterness IPA, it has a remarkably big bitter kick in the finish. Now, this is not a flaw by me, but considering how it pitches itself, it may be something you want to be aware of, depending on your preferred level of alpha acid. Anyway, while the high bitterness in the finish ain’t a bad thing by me, what I think is a strike against it is that the bitterness is quite gritty and rough – which is something that needs a bigger beer than this to pull off well.

The body is moderately fruity and juicy – not as big as a lot of this type, but reasonable – pretty satisfying with a solid bitter backing. The aroma and body don’t quite let the juiciness roam though – it feels slightly restrained; Solid but not showy. It gets its best show just between the swallow and the bitterness of the finish – in the air of that moment a nice fruitiness does rise to fill the gap. The restrain then doesn’t seem to come from the hops, which seem to do the job, but possibly from the body being a tad drier than normal – slightly more towards APA that a good IPA.

So – despite my criticisms it is decently done and decently fruity with solid bitterness. Not one of the best beers, but sits just above average but let down by the rough finish that rides roughshod over what the beer should do best. Even that flaw gets less over time as more fruitiness does come to the finish.

A nice little promotion piece but not a must have beer.

Background: I’ve been a fan of Wild Beer Co pretty much since they opened a few years ago. Not every beer has been a hit, but they have never been dull and have done lots of cool experimental beers. So I was interested to see that they have jumped on crowdfunding to build a new brewery. Hope it goes well for them. Their beers deserve wider exposure. Anyway, this little beer, part of a two pack of cans promoting the whole “Invest” thing was grabbed at independent spirit. At a slight criticism, while they were in their cardboard box it was very easy to see info on investing – but pretty hard to see details on what the heck the two beers actually where. Anyway … this was drunk while listening to some of the spektrmodule music podcast for a varied set of tunes.


Lost and Grounded: Hop-Hand Fallacy (England: Saison: 4.4% ABV)

Visual: Dark hazy lemon to apricot. Middling white head. Some black sediment visible at the base.

Nose: Big orange. Carrot and coriander. Wheaty and tart lemon juice.

Body: Brown bread. Tart lemon. Slight sulphur. Peppery. Light chalk. Sour dough. Apples. Light key lime.

Finish: Sour lemon. Peppery. Sulphur. Chalk. Light hop bitterness and charring. Key lime. Coriander. Light orange skin. Earthy hops.

Conclusion: This feels kind of sulphur touched – to a similar degree to what I would expect in a cask pulled real ale – less so expected in a bottled saison. Very different – now that doesn’t mean bad automatically, but it is different to what I would expect from the style.

It also seems to leans towards a more earthy and grounded interpretation of the saison style, rather than the crisp hopped take of Saison Dupnt and the like. Which is pretty unexpected from the aroma – the aroma actually seemed to be taking some Belgian Wit influence with lots of orange and coriander notes popping out. By comparison the more earthy base seems quite, well, prosaic.

There are subtle orange, and even key lime notes in the body – but under the earthier hop character. It is ok, but it feels slightly dominated by the earthy and sulphur elements, which lead into a peppery finish. The higher notes don’t seem to get much room to play and so, while robust, it seems hard to get excited about.

Possibly if it had not opened with such a high note of that lovely fresh orange I would be viewing it with a kinder eye – but it promised a really fresh touched saison then took it away. IT TOOK IT AWAY. So, as is it seems worse in comparison to the expectations it sets. It really works the more grounded notes, chalky touches, lots of grounding, but all the elements to build off that are done too weakly.

So, to give constructive feedback – it has a solid base that could have a shit-ton done to it without hurting it – but it needs to really build from that. This feels like a beer half done. Not a favourite I am afraid.

Background: This is, technically, not the beer I intended to buy. A while back a bunch of fellow enthusiasts and I did what we called #Brisdram – a whisky fuelled tour of Bristol. It was awesome. Such a pity you missed it. Anyway, Lost and Grounded, a new Brewery in Bristol let us set up in their Brewery based taphouse for some of this time. Many thanks! Anyway, during that time I tried an awesome lager from them – really hopped and fruity but did not lose the natural lager style. Awesome beer. So, now sober, I tried to remember what it was. No bloody clue. So I grabbed this one from Independent Spirit, which sounded about right. Turns out it is a saison. So probably not the one I drank before. Ah well. Drunk while listening to bit more of the excellent Canadian punk band Mobina Galore.

Northen Monk: Northen Star – Mocha Porter (England: Porter: 5.9% ABV)

Visual: Black. Moderate dark brown head.

Nose: Big bitter coffee. Charring. Smoke. Brown bread. Very bitter.

Body: Creamy. Slightly thin until it warms. Milky chocolate. Sweet milky coffee. Condensed cream. Soft treacle. More bitter coffee over time.

Finish: Condensed cream. Sugar dusting. Milky coffee. Milky chocolate. Slight treacle. Chocolate liqueur. Lactose. Bitter coffee and cocoa. Coffee liqueur.

Conclusion: Ok, I had to recalibrate my exceptions for this a few times while doing these notes – so, let’s look back at what we have and see how it all hangs together in the end.

First up – the aroma – bitter coffee as fuck. So, I thought I had a handle on this already. Let’s face it – it didn’t try to hide it – we have a super coffee dominated bitter porter on our hands. Job done. Notes over, right?

So, I took a sip. Then I took a few more as it too a few sips to build up – the first was a tad thin but it quickly gained a bit more weight and hit its stride as … well a condensed cream and milky chocolate sweet centre. WTF? So, nothing like what I expected. This actually initially comes in too sweet with sugar dusting style dusted over it. It was ok, but seemed a bit unbalanced in the completely opposite way to the aroma. So, erm, ok, and this then followed on into the finish. So, the aroma was the odd point, now we have it all worked out, right?

The thing is, after drinking a bit more, and letting it warm, the bitter coffee came straight back in – riding above over the sweetness. Not removing it, but squatting bitter coffee and cocoa into the heart of the beer. I’m now 90% sure this beer is just fucking with me.

So, here I am, at the end of the beer – what do I think? Well, it is a tad over sweet – almost milk stout style – but generally it is a good one. A slight more subtle use of the sweetness would have made it a great contrast to the very bitter cofee and would have been a better beer. As is the coffee is very well expressed, and so – yeah – kind of the uber coffee take on a milk stout. Interesting – not a favourite but interesting. As always, depending on how much that ideas sounds good to you will depend on how much you will like it. You mileage may vary and all that.

Background: This is the last of the beers my mate got me from Honest Brew‘s as a present. Many thanks again. I may have not been quite 100% in the zone as I went to drink this. I say that as I took out my bottle opener to try and get into the can. Anyway… Drunk while listening to Nine Inch Nails – The Fragile – good background drinking music, and not one I’ve gone to for a while.

Northern Monks: Drew Millward: Passion Fruit Lassi IPA – Northern Tropics (England: IPA: 7.4% ABV)

Visual: Peach skin coloured body with a cloudy and semi opaque centre. Not much carbonation. A large, just slightly yellowed white bubbled head.

Nose: Flour. Crisp hop character. Light pineapple and bitterness. Mild passion-fruit and guava.

Body: Peach and apricot. Caramel. Natural yogurt. Vanilla. Thick. Guava. Dried passion-fruit. Some hop oils. Chives. Slight peppermint. Slight sour cream. Sweet fudge.

Finish: Thick yogurt. Slight mint leaves and chives. Some bitterness. Nana bread. Slight cloying sweet toffee. Mango.

Conclusion: This is a mix of the expected and the unusual. On the unusual side this has a far thicker texture than most IPAs. It feels very natural yogurt influenced in both feel and taste. Nicely it is thick but not heavy, giving grip while still being pretty easy to drink in a kind of milkshake fashion. This styling also brings a slight sour cream and chives cloying note with a peppermint oddity mixed in – a mild note, but kind of refreshing as that. If I had to sum it up I would say that it has an element like this mint dips you get with your poppadoms in some restaurants.

So this has a thick base and some unusual fresh notes within that – they then layer that onto a more traditional big fruity character – passion-fruit, thick guava and some peach. It is slightly cloying in the thick flavour – very yogurt like still and very fruity – the extra grip and thickness pushes the level of fruitiness up without it feeling like just a fruit juice beer.

The thickness does have a few slight drawbacks though. One is that there is a strong vanilla sweetness to the middle of this – done in a similar style to what you would expect from bourbon barrel ageing. The problem is that the cloying thickness interacts with that in such a way that makes it a tad artificial, and well, cloying sweetness. It isn’t hugely off-putting, but does rise over time to become more dominant than I would like.

So this is fruity and thick – slightly unusual – with a little bit less emphasis on the vanilla mixing with the sour cream and greenery notes I think it would work better and be an excellent beer. Not absent , just a tad more subtly used. As is they do hurt the beer a touch, but it is still very enjoyable in its fruity and thick style.

Odd, and pretty good but not great.

Background: Another of Northern Monk’s Patrons Projects – number 4.01 to be exact by the can. This time with Drew Millward, about whom google tells me very little. Anyway, awesome can design on this one – one of the main reasons it caught my eye at Independent Spirit. So I grabbed it. I am fickle that way. I’m not 100% sure if this thing’s name is Northern Tropics, Passion Fruit lassi IPA, or possibly both. Anyway, I looked up what lassi is after drinking – it is a yogurt based drink with spices and fruit that is popular in India. Which suddenly makes a bunch of my notes make more sense – I knew it was yogurt based but not the exact nature. This was drunk while listening to Miracle Of Sound’s Level 7. I’ve finally bought my own copy of it rather than listening to the youtube version. Still good stuff.

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